One of the most popular antiage-ingredients, hyaluronate (or hyaluronic acid), this year marks 85 years. SPLETNIK.RU asked the cosmetologists to dispel myths about the polysaccharide and also tell about the many ways to use it (and this is not the only injectable fillers).
The term “hyaluronic acid” appeared in the 30-ies of the last century thanks to the scientists biochemists John Palmer and Karl Meyer. They isolated this substance from the transparent substance that fills the space between the retina and the crystalline lens.
Since then, was conducted more than one hundred studies of this substance, and in 2009 in the medical journal International Journal of Toxicology published an article, finally recognizing hyaluronic acid of any origin and its derivatives are safe to use. For a long time, hyaluronic acid is made from animal products. Now she biosynthetic, that is as safe as possible.
Hyaluronic acid — one of the basic components of all body tissues, and, according to the latest data, it is included in the composition of the blood. In the body of a person weighing 70 kg on average contains about 15 grams of hyaluronic acid, one third of which is converted (i.e. cleaved or synthesized) every day.
Her main superpower is to bind water in the intercellular spaces. One molecule of hyaluronic acid can hold up to 2500 water molecules. Hyaluronic acid determines the barrier and protective functions. So, if you are injured, the hyaluronate is responsible for ensuring that fresh wound quickly healed.
Molecules of hyaluronate enhance angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels to replace damaged. It performs an important function inside the joints, acting as a lubricant of articular surfaces.
In aesthetic medicine and cosmetology, hyaluronic acid is used for a long time — the creams, serums, injectable fillers, biorevitalization. Due to the fact that hyaluronic acid is part of many tissues (skin and cartilage), it is used to treat many diseases associated with these tissues (cataracts, osteoarthritis, and others).
Is stable and nesterilizovanny acid. What does it mean? The molecules are separated from each other and can be connected together in defined relationships. If we are talking about procedures, it techniques of mesotherapy and biorevitalisation. Technically they are very similar: multiple injections into the skin of hyaluronic acid. Only in mesotherapy uses smaller molecules, for biorevitalisation and larger.
In mesotherapy is another effect — it stimulates improvement of the quality of the skin. In addition to hyaluronic acid, you can add a different ingredient that enhances the ability of the drug in which it is contained. For example, with a lightening effect, anti-inflammatory (for acne), anti-aging (hyaluronic acid, peptides)— explains Maria Bondareva, dermatologist, cosmetologist in the clinic, Remedy Lab.
The term appeared in 2001, it was invented by an Italian beautician Antonio di Pietro and identified as a method of intradermal injections of unmodified hyaluronic acid. During this time, preparations for biorevitalization has made a huge leap.
Recently, new medicines (“Metavante”, “Mitoxantron” and “Aqualin”), which in addition contain hyaluronic acid and peptides. This is a special signal proteins, which give stem cells (so to speak “basic” cells that comprise the fibers and fabrics) signal to turn into the collagen, elastin and blood vessels.
And one of the most recent theories of aging with age and under the influence of negative factors slowing down the process of stimulating stem cells.
All the drugs used in mesotherapy consist of hyaluronic acid. There are only two or three plants producing hyaluronic acid in a pure form, and purchase manufacturers of injectable drugs. But before reaching the consumer, hyaluronic acid undergoes several stages of processing.
First of all, cleanse it of toxins — residues of bacteria, which produce hyaluronic acid. Then it is necessary to stabilize, that is, transferred from a liquid to a gel. For this purpose, a special chemical compound, which then must also be displayed. How carefully everything is made, how clean the result was a drug depends on its price. More expensive (and therefore more pure product) is perceived by the skin better, minimizes the possibility of such reactions, as a temporary redness and itching. In addition, the purity and quality of the hyaluronic acid depends on the long-term result.
According to Maria Bondareva, mesotherapy (a rate three to seven times), usually administered once a week, biorevitalization (course three or four times) once every two to three weeks.
To restore tone and turgor of the skin we use skybuster — preparations based on hyaluronic acid of a new generation. It is a cross between biorevitalization, consisting of very soft, fluid hyaluronic acid and absorbable within a few days, and fillers, which, by contrast, represent a very dense gel, which is quite long will not be displayed and is not suitable for jewelry intradermal administration,
— says Anna Klykova, the doctor-cosmetician of clinic “Estelab”.
All the matter density and the degree of stabilization of the molecules of hyaluronic acid, which persists in the skin for more than six months as the fillers. But unlike the latter, skybuster have a special microstructure, through which interact with skin cells and moisturize her revitalizants.
With the introduction of the drug skybuster there is an instantaneous elastic embedding of hyaluronic acid between cells, and in places where there was a shortage of fabric and formed a scar, skybuster rushes like a lifeguard, then aligning and making up the missing volume. Skybuster not only fill wrinkles but also stimulate our skin cells to produce the collagen, so the effect will continue for four to six months after the drug is completely disappear from the skin. Some of the most famous skybuster is drugs group “Restylane”: Restylane Vital and Restylane Vital Light (it is more suitable for delicate, sensitive skin or delicate skin of the hands, neck and neckline).
The most anticipated new last year — is the drug “Profile”. It contains all the same hyaluronic acid with high molecular weight and low. The drug is administered just five points, not around the face, as in bio-revitalisation. Thus, no trace of bruises does not remain,
notes Ataeva Camille, the doctor-cosmetologist of the clinic “the Lancet Center.”
Hyaluronic acid with high molecular weight has a strong lifting effect and acid with low molecular weight is responsible for the hydration and anti-inflammatory effect.
The indications for the procedure are:
• Mature skin with signs of sagging, atony, photos or premature ageing;
• superficial and deep wrinkles;
• dry, dehydrated, Mature skin;
• loose frame the face, loss of definition of facial features and contour, gravitational ptosis of soft tissues;
• acne and scars;
• shortage of natural fat.
Fillers and contouring
In search of eternal youth experiment with fillers began not yesterday, and in the year 1800. At the time, to fill in missing volumes and adjustments facial beauticians used paraffin. Paraffin in the best case caused a severe allergic reaction in the worst — led to serious health problems. That is why cosmetologists have stopped the experiments.
To this question back in 1950 in the United States. Then just started the silicon boom, and this substance became a constituent of fillers. But the positive results failed to achieve: a silicone filler was moved to the face and literally mutilated those who dared to beauty transformation.
But experts did not give up and after much research in 1981 developed the first filler based on bovine collagen (protein). It worked exactly as intended by scientists. However, in this ointment was the fly in the ointment — animal protein often caused severe allergic reactions.
Only in 2003 in the United States has developed a filler based on hyaluronic acid, which has reduced allergic reactions to a minimum. Responsible for this finding has become the brand Restylane, fillers that is this company have become most popular around the world. Since 2006, the hyaluronic fillers began to produce more than five stamps from different countries. Own hyaluronic acid exists in all of our organs and tissues. And there is a specific enzyme that breaks down her hyaluronidase. Depends on his activity, how fast the filler will dissolve, but more on that later.
When the metabolism is at hialuronico accelerated, the effect of the injection will last two to three months, if you have a slow metabolic rate from one year to two years. Therefore, manufacturers have created variants of fillers based on calcium hydroxyapatite (Radiesse). This drugs promise a long lasting result. However, they are suitable for correction not all parts of the face, for example, if you need to adjust naselenie grooves or shape of the lips, it is best to apply hyaluronic filler.
Biphasic and monophasic fillers
Most of fillers — monophasic. Single-phase gels consist of particles of the same size, which allows them to be evenly distributed under the skin and fill the space in the folds and wrinkles. They contain analgesics, which makes the procedure painless.
Not so long ago appeared on the market and biphasic fillers, which “are” not eight months, and a year and a half. These gels are designed for the formation of facial contours, correction of the chin, filling of deep wrinkles, non-surgical rhinoplasty.
There are about 14 gels, they differ in density, viscosity (or fluidity), flexibility and durability of effect. Lyft Restylane and Juvéderm Voluma can help create a beautiful jaw line or restore volume of the cheeks; while the lighter plastic Volbella and Juvéderm and Belotero Balance are more suitable, say, for correcting a thin upper lip, says beautician dermatologist Francesca Fusco.
However, there is the antidote of fillers based on hyaluronic acid is an enzyme hyaluronidase (hyaluronan).
If you do not like the effect of the introduction of the drug, you will be able to delete it. For biorevitalization no need for the use of hyaluronidase, since the molecules of hyaluronic acid and so quickly dissolve, leaving behind traces of their actions: hydration, stimulation to produce hyaluronic acid or the anti-inflammatory effects or effects lightening— says Maria Bondareva.
Anastasia Popova, doctor Delete, notes that techniques the introduction of fillers much as the drugs exclusively for this zone (good clinics — not less than 10).
Sometimes not so much need volume, and clear how many of your top lip. And work with the “Cupid’s bow” — the creation of the line of the upper lip with a clear hole in the middle. If, however, the contouring is introduced over the drug, the natural shape of the lips disappear and we see just two plump sausages, or “whistle” (as they say themselves beauticians). In this case, apply the “Lidaza and Longidasa” antidote to hyaluronic acid,
— the expert explains.
These drugs are injected into the skin to reduce the volume after introduction of the filler on the basis of the only hyaluronic acid (for example, if you enter “Radiesse” — calcium hydroxyapatite, but the enzyme will not work).
Although some fillers can be quickly dissolved, not all errors were so easily solved. During any injection there is the risk of falling into a blood vessel, which can lead to the death of skin cells, scarring and even blindness, warns the beautician sherene Idriss.
It should be borne in mind that sometimes these manipulations cause an allergic reaction: swelling, itching, redness. One in two thousand, but still. Sometimes a doctor may mix in the same syringe hyaluronidase and dexamethasone to reduce the risks, but the scientific community in Russia believes this “cocktail” is dangerous and strongly not recommended to do so.
The importance is not the number of milliliters of solution, and the number of IU injected simultaneously in the human body. To eliminate the over-correction will be sufficient use a minimal dose of the enzyme. Moreover, choosing the proper dosage, you can not dissolve all the filler and just “remove” the protruding part.
According to the report made at the September Cannes Congress C. DeLorenzi, hyaluronidase in large doses can cause cell death in the retina. And safe simultaneously with the introduction of dose is 500 IU.
Previously, we used hyaluronic acid to fill wrinkles. But now doctors inject it deeper. Acid fills the cavity under the folds, the skin is lifted and tightened, the wrinkles disappear for 9-12 months. Moreover, repeated injections are performed with a smaller dose of filler, because the folds and lack of space become less pronounced,
says Neil Sadik, a dermatologist from new York.
And of course, do not discount some of the hydrating serums and creams with hyaluronic acid. For a long time it was thought that molecular size does not allow it to penetrate deep into the skin (acid — about 3000 nm, while the distance between the skin cells does not exceed 50 nm), however, it is not so. Hyaluronic acid provides only surface moisture, but does not restore fullness or volume. On the other hand, to moisturize the skin, some components not necessary to penetrate her as deeply as possible. We have collected for you the most popular serums from this component.